What are the dangers of smoking, specifically?
It is known that smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, but it increases the risk of many other neoplasms in any organ.
Tobacco smoke contains over 4000 different chemical compounds, of which at least 400 are toxic. The temperature of the tip of a burning cigarette is about 700 ° C, while the inside is about 60 °. This causes thermal degradation and oxidation of a large number of compounds in smoke, leading to large number of toxic compounds.
The most damaging of these are:
- tar - a powerful kangerogen;
- nicotine - it raises cholesterol levels in the blood, but the most harmful effect is that it causes addiction to cigarettes and makes stopping them difficult and painful;
- carbon monoxide - binds permanently to hemoglobin in the blood, which prevents gas exchange in tissues and organs;
- solids which stick permanently inside the airways and cause chronic degenerative disease of the respiratory tract - interstitial lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and others.
Smoking significantly shortened life expectancy. Mortality from smoking in the age group below 70 years than mortality from AIDS, breast cancer, traffic accidents and drug abuse combined.
Actually, not lung cancer, and cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death due to smoking. It leads to hardening of the arteries and increases blood cholesterol - risk factors for atherosclerosis. When atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, leaving parts of it with blood flow. They can block major blood vessels. Also, smoking increases the risk of clots forming in the blood vessels, called thrombi, which can also block major vessels.
Coronary thrombosis can cause stroke. It is estimated that 30% of heart attacks are caused indirectly smoking. Statistics show that smokers develop coronary thrombosis average 10 years earlier than nonsmokers, and on average 9 out of heart bypass patients with a smoker.
Cerebral thrombosis leads to stroke. Also, the deterioration of cerebral blood flow in cerebral atherosclerosis leads to a decrease in cognitive function.
Other typical complications of atherosclerosis are affected renal failure in the renal arteries and gangrene and amputantsii involvement in the arteries of the limbs.
Neoplasia take "only" second place in the list of the most lethal complications of smoking. This applies mostly to lung cancer and various neoplasms of the mouth and throat.
The link between smoking and lung cancer is well documented and understood:
90% of cases are caused by smoking - if there was no smoking, lung cancer would be a rare disease. About one in ten moderate smokers and one in five intensive smoking (more than 15 cigarettes per day) died from lung cancer.
The risk is proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking and nicotine content, tar and particulates in tobacco and smoke. The risk depends on the presence of the filter and tobacco processing prior to packaging the final product.
After quitting takes at least 15 years, while the risk of lung cancer falls to the level of a nonsmoker.
Over 80% of cases of mouth neoplasms occur in smokers. Other, much more commonly occurring neoplasms in smokers are cancer of the bladder, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, cervix, and much more.
According to the latest medical definitions, chronic obstructive disease (COPD) is collectively for a group of conditions where there is a permanent tightening of breath - emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Smoking is the most common cause of COPD - finds that 80% of cases are due to him. Moreover, 94% smoked more than 20 cigarettes a day have emphysema in one way or another.
COPD begins most often between 35 - and 45-years old when lung function starts to weaken, for physiological reasons. Smokers, however, the rate can be up to three times higher than normal. With the weakening of pulmonary dyspnoea began to show. Advanced forms of COPD hospitalizations imposed.
Male smokers between 30 - and 50-years of age are at 1.5 times higher risk of erectile dysfunction. This is due to the hardening and blockage of blood vessels in the penis - an effect that is amplified in time. Erectile dysfunction in smokers is often an indicator of the presence of atherosclerosis or clogging of vessels in other organs and systems.
Other significant health effects of smoking can be noted:
- hypertension - continued smoking helps increase blood pressure;
- exacerbation of existing asthma;
- doubling of the risk of macular degeneration in smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day;
- increased risk of cataract - cataract;
- staining of teeth and gums;
- increased risk of periodontal disease;
- increase the risk of stomach ulcers and dvanadestoprastnika;
- premature aging of the skin by reducing its blood supply of vitamin A in it.
Smoking is not only personal, but a social problem. Passive smoking imposes on others health effects, they do not have and are not willing to tolerate. Restriction of smoking in public places is a necessary step. The state should intervene to ensure public health.
Also, smoking during pregnancy puts the unborn child has a disability and risk of low birth weight. Children living in households where smoking are at double the risk of asthma, bronchitis, allergies and acute respiratory infections.
Is it appropriate to impose conditions on anyone but yourself?